Optional Readings



Liu, Q. P., G. Sulzenbacher, et al. "Bacterial Glycosidases for The Production of Universal Red Blood Cells." Nature Biotechnology 25 (2007): 454–64.

"Press Release: The 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry." Nobelprize.org. May 1, 2013.

Watson, and Crick paper. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids." (PDF) Nature 171 (1953): 737–8.


RedAndr. "GCSF Protein Folding Illustration Movie." May 8, 2007. YouTube. Accessed May 2, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=swEc_sUVz5I

"Animation: Feedback Inhibition of Biochemical Pathways." Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2007.


Nova beta, "How Cells Divide," PBS Online by WGBH.

Miko, I. "Thomas Hunt Morgan and Sex Linkage." Scitable by Nature Education 1, no. 1 (2008).

Sturtevant, A. H. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The Linear Arrangement of Six Sex-Linked Factors in Drosophila, as Shown by Their Mode of Association." (PDF) Journal of Experimental Zoology 14 (1913): 43–59.

"Possible Role for Huntington's Gene Discovered." MIT News Office, January 16, 2013.

Molecular Biology

Griffith, M. B. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The Significance of Pneumococcal Types." (PDF - 5.1MB) Journal of Hygiene 25, no. 2 (1928): 113–59.

Oswald, T. A., C. M. MacLeod, et al. "Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types." Journal of Experimental Medicine 79, no. 2 (1944): 137–58.

Hershey, A. D., and M. Chase. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage." (PDF - 1.0MB) The Journal of General Physiology 36, no. 1 (1952): 39–56.

Meselson, M., and F. W. Stahl. "The Replication of DNA in Escherichia coli." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 44, no. 7 (1958): 671–82.

"Carol W. Greider—Nobel Lecture: Telomerase Discovery: The Excitement of Putting Together Pieces of the Puzzle." Nobelprize.org. Accessed May 2, 2013.

Kornberg, A. "The Biologic Synthesis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1959.

"Reversing the Conventional DNA Wisdom." MIT News Office, December 4, 2008.

"Deciphering the Language of Transcription Factors." MIT News Office, September 10, 2012.

"Researchers Build a Toolbox for Synthetic Biology." MIT News Office, August 3, 2012.

"Evolution: It's All in How You Splice It." MIT News Office, December 20, 2012.

"The 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry—Popular Information." Nobelprize.org. Accessed May 2, 2013.

Cell Biology


"Living Cells Say: Can You Hear Me Now?" MIT News Office, November 17, 2011.

"Why does Programmed Cell Death, or Apoptosis, Occur? Does It Take Place Among Bacteria and Fungi or Only in the Cells of Higher Organisms? " Scientific American, Ask the Experts, October 21, 1999.


Garlandscience. "Protein Translocation." April 21, 2009. YouTube. Accessed May 2, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUy_Em5dXmc

Saville, Diana. "SRP, 3D Animatic." July 20, 2010. YouTube. Accessed May 2, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScAu0MZK3CU&feature=related

Recombinant DNA Technology


Wadman, M. "Special Report Cloning Special: Dolly: A Decade on." Nature 445 (2007): 800–1.

Ralston, A., and K. Shaw. "Gene Expression Regulates Cell Differentiation." Nature Education 1, no. 1 (2008).

Greer, E. L., T. J. Maures, et al. "Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance of Longevity in Caenorhabditis Elegans." Nature 479, no. 7373 (2011): 365–71.

Mango, S. "Ageing: Generations of Longevity." Nature 479, no. 7373 (2011): 302–3.


Deerforum. "Plasmid Cloning." August 14, 2007. YouTube. Accessed May 2, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acKWdNj936o&feature=related