This section provides a detailed list of the readings required for each weekly session.

[Encyclopedia] = Delgado, James P., ed. Encyclopedia of Underwater and Maritime Archaeology. New Haven CT, Yale University Press, 1998.

Week 1

Introduction: Technology, Archaeology, and the Deep Sea

Week 2

Marine and Nautical Archaeology: Method and Theory

Muckelroy, K. Maritime Archaeology. Cambridge UK, Cambridge University Press, 1980. Chapters 1-2, pp. 3-58; Chapter 6, pp. 215-225.

Watson, P. J. "Method and Theory in Shipwreck Archaeology." Shipwreck Anthropology. R. Gould ed., Albuquerque NM, U. New Mexico Press, 1983. Pp. 23-36.

Parker, A. J. Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean and the Roman Provinces. Oxford UK, Tempus Reparatum / B.A.R. IS 580. 1992.

Steffy, J. R. Wooden Ship Building and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks. College Station TX, Texas A&M University Press, 1994.


"Maritime archaeology," "Underwater archaeology," "Nautical archaeology," "Mary Rose," "Institute of Nautical archaeology," "Trilateration," "Baseline trilateration," "Direct Survey Method," "Airlift," "Positioning systems," "Shipwreck anthropology," "Site formation processes," "Cultural context," "Deep water sites," "Excavation", "Conservation."

For Recent Research Collaborations and Academic Resources

Week 3

Deep Ocean Robotics: Vehicles, Sensors and Modeling

Ballard, R. D. "The MEDEA/JASON remotely operated vehicle system." Deep-Sea Research. 40, # 8, 1993. Pp. 1673-1687.

Whitcomb, L., D. Yoerger, H. Singh, and D. Mindell. "Toward Precision Robotic Maneuvering, Survey, and Manipulation in Unstructured Undersea Environments," in Y. Shirai and S. Hirose, eds. Robotics Research: the Eighth International Symposium, London UK, Springerverlag, 1998.

Mindell, D. A., and B. Bingham. "A High-frequency, Narrow-beam Sub-bottom Profiler for Archaeological Applications." OCEANS 2001: Proceedings of the 'Oceans' IEEE-MTS Conference (Nov. 2001).

Singh, H., J. Adams, D. Mindell, and B. P. Foley. "Imaging Underwater for Archaeology." Journal of Field Archaeology. 27/3 (Fall), 2000. Pp. 319-328.


"Submersibles" "Sonic High Accuracy Ranging and Positioning (SHARPS)," "Photomosaic," "Remote sensing," "Video mosaic," "Sub-bottom profiler," "Hamilton and Scourge."

Relevant Web Resources


Sub-bottom Profiler

Precision Navigation


Relevant Expeditions

Skerki 1997, Monitor 2001, Monitor 2003 (EXACT), Defence 2000 (SHARPS).

Week 4

Seafaring and the Ancient Mediterranean, Overview

Pryor, J. H. Geography, Technology, and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean 649-1571. Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1988. Chapter 1, "The sea." pp. 12-24.

Braudel, F. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. Transl. S. Reynolds. NY and London, Harper Colophon Books, 1972. Vol.1: part II "The Heart of the Mediterranean: Seas and Coasts." pp. 103-167; part IV "The Mediterranean as a Physical Unit: Climate and History." pp. 231-275.

Karmon, Y. "Geographical Components in the Study of Ancient Mediterranean Ports." In Harbour Archaeology: proc. First International Workshop on Ancient Mediterranean Harbours (Caesarea Maritime, 24-28.6.1983). Avner Raban ed. Oxford UK, B.A.R., 1985. Pp. 1-10.

Murray, W. M. "Do Modern Winds Equal Ancient Winds?" Mediterranean Historical Review. 2/2, 1987. Pp. 139-167.


"Mediterranean Sea," "Israel," "Greece," "Italy," "Archaeological record," "Archaeology," "Ceramic studies," "Contextual relationships," "Shipboard society."

For DeepArch projects at Submerged Ancient Mediterranean Sites, See "Expeditions"

Skerki Bank 1997

Ashkelon 1999

Black Sea 2000

Ashkelon 2003

Black Sea 2003

Week 5

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Bellingham, J. "New Oceanographic Uses of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles." MTS Journal. 31, 3, 1997, Pp. 34-47.

Mindell, D. A., and B. Bingham. "New Archaeological Uses of Autonomous Undersea Vehicles." OCEANS 2001: Proceedings of the 'Oceans' IEEE-MTS Conference. Nov. 2001.

Relevant Web Resources


Week 6

Trade in the Bronze Age - Eastern Mediterranean

Sherratt, A., and Sherratt, S. "From Luxuries to Commodities: The Nature of Mediterranean Bronze Age Trading Systems." In Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean. ed. N. H. Gale (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology, no. 90), Jonsered, P. Åstroms förlag, 1991. Pp. 351-386.

Potts, D. "Distant Shores: Ancient Near Eastern Trade with South Asia and Northeast Africa." In Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Vol. III, ed. Jack M. Sasson, New York, Scribner, 1995. Pp. 1451-1463.

Pulak, C. "The Uluburun Shipwreck: an Overview." International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 27/3, 1998. Pp. 188-224.

Blue, L. "Cyprus and Cilicia: The Typology and Palaeogeography of Second Millennium Harbors." In Res maritimae: Cyprus and the eastern Mediterranean from prehistory to late antiquity: Proc. Second International Symposium "Cities on the Sea" (Nicosia, Cyprus, 10.18-22.1994). ed. S. Swiny et al., Atlanta GA, Scholars Press, 1997. Pp. 31-47.

Marcus, E. Maritime Trade in the Southern Levant from Earliest Times Through the Middle Bronze IIA Period. Unpubl. D.Phil, University of Oxford UK, 1998. "By Land or by Sea in the Southeastern Mediterranean." pp. 90-123.

Davis, D. L. "Navigation in the Ancient Eastern Mediterranean." Unpublished MA Thesis, Dept. Anthropology, Texas A & M University, 2001. Chs. III, IV, V (pp. 41-87).

Brody, A. J. Each Man Cried Out to His God: the Specialized religion of Canaanite and Phoenician Seafarers. Harvard Semitic Monographs n. 58, Atlanta GA, Scholars Press, 1999. Introduction and conclusion (pp. 1-8 and 95-103).

Wachsmann, S. Seagoing ships and seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. College Station TX, TAMU Press, 1998. Selections.


"Uluburun," "Cape Gelidonya Wreck," "Bronze Age Stone Anchors," "Harbour studies," "Sheytan Deresi Wreck."

Relevant Web Resources

INA Projects Web-site (click on "Virtual Museum")

Week 7

The Minoan World

Wiener, M. "The Isles of Crete? The Minoan Thalassocracy Revisited." In Thera and the Aegean World III, Vol. 1: Archaeology. D. A. Hardy ed., London UK, The Thera Foundation, 1990. D. A. Hardy, ed. Pp. 128-161.

Stos-Gale, S., and N. H. Gale "The Role of Thera in the Bronze Age Trade in Metals." In Thera and the Aegean World III, Vol. 1: Archaeology. D. A. Hardy ed., London UK, The Thera Foundation, 1990. Pp. 72-92.

Doumas, C. ed. Thera and the Aegean World. Papers II. 2nd International Scientific Congress (Santorini, 9/1978). London, Thera & Aegean World. 1978-1990. Selections.

Chadwick, J. "Linear B and related scripts." In Reading the Past. Ancient Writing from Cuneiform to the Alphabet. ed. J. T. Hooker, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1990. Pp. 136-195.

Davis, E. N. "The Iconography of the Ship Fresco from Thera." In Ancient Greek Art and Iconography. W. G. Moon, ed., Madison WI, U. Wisconsin Press, 1983. Pp. 3-14.

Relevant Web Resources

The Prehistoric Archaeology of the Aegean

Week 8

Minoan Seafaring

Powell, J. Fishing in the Prehistoric Aegean. Jonsered Sweden, P. Åstroms förlag, 1996. Part III "Fishing Methods."

Hutchinson, R. W. Prehistoric Crete. Baltimore, Penguin Books, 1962. Ch. 4, "The Minoan Marine, Trade, and Communications." (pp. 91-122), and Ch. 9, "The Social and Economic Life, Industries, and Agriculture" (pp. 232-266).

Morgan, L. The Miniature Wall Paintings of Thera. A Study in Aegean Culture and Iconography. Cambridge UK, Cambridge University Press, 1988. "Ships and Boats." and "The Nautical Procession." pp. 121-145.

Cline, E. "The Nature of the Economic Relations of Crete with Egypt and the Near East during the Late Bronze Age." In From Minoan Farmers to Roman Traders: Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete. A. Chianotis et al., eds., Stuttgard, F.Steiner, 1999. Pp. 115-139.

Reynolds, C. G. "The Maritime Character of Minoan Civilization." The American Neptune. Vol. 56, 1996. pp 315-351. (read critically)

Betancourt, P. "Relations Between the Aegean and the Hyksos at the End of the Middle Bronze Age." In The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. E. D. Oren, ed., Philadelphia PN, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 1997. Pp.429-432.



Week 9

Geology of the Santorini Volcano (Guest: Haraldur Sigurdsson)

Friedrich, W. L. Fire in the Sea. The Santorini volcano: Natural history and the Legend of Atlantis. Translated by A. R. McBirney. Cambridge UK and New York NY, Cambridge University Press, 2000. Parts I and II, pp. 6-93.

Druitt, T. H., and V. Francaviglia. "Caldera formation on Santorini and the physiography of the islands in the late Bronze Age." Bullettin of Volcanology. Vol 54, 484-493.

Week 10

Trade in the Western Mediterranean: Roman, Phoenician and Greek

Sherratt, A., and Sherratt, S. "The Growth of the Mediterranean Economy in the Early First Millennium BC." World Archaeology. 24/3, 1993. Pp. 361-78.

Markoe, G. Phoenicians. Berkeley, University of California Press, 2000. Ch. 7, "Commercial Expansion Abroad."

Boardman, J. The Greeks overseas: their early colonies and trade. NY, Thames and Hudson, 1999 (4th ed.). Ch. 5 "Italy, Sicily, and the West."

Pomey, P. "Navigation and Ships in the Age of Greek Colonization." In The Greek World. G. P. Carratelli, ed., New York NY, Rizzoli, 1996. Pp. 133-40.

Ballard, R. D., and L. Stager et al. "Iron Age Shipwrecks in Deep Water off Ashkelon, Israel." American Journal of Archaeology. 106.2 (April), 2002. Pp. 151-168.


"Giglio wreck," "Marsala Punic Warship."

Week 11

The Roman Economy (Guest: Peter Temin)

Temin, P. "A Market Economy in the Early Roman Empire." Unpubl. ms, Dept. Economics, M.I.T., Nov. 12, 2001.

Peacock, D. P. Amphorae and the Roman Economy: An Introductory Guide. London UK, Longman, 1986.


"Kyrenia Ship," "Madrague de Giens Wreck," "Grand Congloué," "Alexandria," "Actian Naval Monument," "Caesarea Maritima," "Athlit Ram."

Week 12

Skerki Bank, Mediterranean Sea (Guest: Anna Marguerite McCann)


McCann, A. M., and Freed, J. Deep Water Archaeology: A Late-Roman ship from Carthage and an Ancient Trade Route near Skerki Bank off Northwest Sicily. Ann Arbor MI, Journal of Roman Archaeology, suppl. ser. 13, 1993. Chs. 1-4.

Ballard, R. D., and A. M. McCann, et al. "The discovery of ancient history in the deep sea using advanced deep submergence technology." Deep-Sea Research I. vol.47 n. 9 (Sept.), 2000. Pp. 1591-1620.

McCann, A. M. "Amphoras from the Deep Sea: Ancient Shipwrecks between Carthage and Rome." Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum. Acta 36, 2000. Pp. 443-448.

McCann, A. M. "An Early Imperial Shipwreck in the Deep Sea off Skerki Bank." Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum. Acta 37, 2001. Pp. 257-264.


"Isis Wreck", "Cosa, harbor of."

Relevant Web Resources

Skerki Bank

Week 13

Cultural Resource Management of Submerged Sites: Ethics, Legislation and Conservation

Piechota, D., [conservation at Skerki], in McCann, A. M., and Freed, J. "Deep Water Archaeology: A Late-Roman ship from Carthage and an Ancient Trade Route near Skerki Bank off Northwest Sicily." Ann Arbor MI, Journal of Roman Archaeology, suppl. ser. 13, 1993, pp. 103-107.

Pearson, C. ed. Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects. London UK and Boston MA, Butterworths, 1987.

Strati, A. "The protection of the underwater cultural heritage: an emerging objective of the contemporary law of the sea." Publications on Ocean Development. 23, Kluwer Academic Publishers, July 1995.

Encyclopedia: "Cultural Resources Management," "Abandoned Shipwreck Act," "ICOMOS," "Avocationals," "National Marine Sanctuaries," "Treasure-hunting," "Salvage Law," "Professional Ethics," "UN Law of the Sea Convention."

Relevant Web Resources

Submerged Resources Center (NPS/Dept Interior)

"Submerged Cultural Resources Study: USS Arizona" by D. H. Lenihan (1989)

Conservation and Management of Cult:

MIT WORLD video, "Civil War High Tech"